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Oregon Historic Sites Database

address:628 Washington St historic name:Cottage Grove National Guard Armory
Cottage Grove, Lane County current/other names:Cottage Grove Armory
assoc addresses:
block/lot/tax lot:
location descr: twnshp/rng/sect/qtr sect:17S 3W 31
resource type:Building height (stories):2.0 total elig resources:1 total inelig resources:0
elig evaluation: eligible/significant NR Status: Listed Individually & in Hist District
prim constr date:1927 second date:1929 date indiv listed:03/07/2012
primary orig use: Military Facility orig use comments:
second orig use: Administrative Facility
primary style: Art Deco prim style comments:
secondary style: sec style comments:
primary siding: Concrete: Other/Undefined siding comments:
secondary siding: Concrete: Other/Undefined
plan type: architect:Hunziker, Smith, & Phillips
builder:Stevens, Niblock, & Leabo
comments/notes:
Part of a draft MPS from 2004
Survey/Grouping Included In: Type of Grouping Date Listed Date Compiled
   Cottage Grove Downtown Commercial Historic District Listed Historic District 01/28/1994
   Oregon's National Guard Armories, 1911-1957 Thematic Grouping 2004
NR date listed: 03/07/2012
ILS survey date:
RLS survey date:
106 Project(s)
SHPO Case Date Agency Effect Eval
10-2488 10/11/2010 no effect
04/10/2002 adverse effect
Special Assess Project(s): None
Federal Tax Project(s): None
(Includes expanded description of the building/property, setting, significant landscape features, outbuildings and alterations)
The Cottage Grove National Guard Armory is located at 628 Washington Street in Cottage Grove’s commercial district. The community armory is situated on the corner of Washington and South 7th Street, and is near other civic buildings, including Old City Hall and the public library. There are no significant landscape features on or near the armory property. The building has a rectangular footprint, and: rests on a poured concrete foundation. Cast-in- place concrete walls are finished with a poured concrete exterior, and six-over-six double hung windows with wood sash are typical of the building, although there is at least one aluminum sash replacement window. Art Deco embellishments decorate the building, including brackets and cast concrete chevrons at the cornice, stylized cast concrete elements above .second-story windows, and, most spectacularly, a two-story canted entrance with curved stairs, decorative buttresses, four doors with metal screens on the side openings, and four second-story windows, all capped by the state seal. A two-story, gable-roofed element housing the drill hall dominates the building, and is flanked by one-story flat-roofed administrative components on the south and east facades. All roofing is built-up. The six-bay east and west facades feature three levels of windows (including those that light the basement), and secondary entrances are located on the north, east and west facades. A one-story stage wing abuts the north end of the building. The basement originally housed stable for a cavalry unit and amenities, including a banquet room and an indoor rifle range, which were elements typical of armories built nationwide before World War II. Currently this area houses storage cages. The 62x109’ drill hall occupies much of the first floor and appears to remain intact. A stage is located at the north end of the drill hall, and a second-story balcony, now used for storage and offices, flanks the space on three sides, The drill hall ceiling is open-beamed. The rest of the first floor is composed of what was originally the battery Club Room, on the south facade, and the Company room, occupying the northeast corner of the building, both now partitioned into offices, as well as three smaller, original offices along the east facade. Additional offices are located on the second floor. Acoustical tile ceilings and, in some cases, carpet have been installed in the offices and hallways. Nine inch square black and green asbestos tiles cover the floors in the dining hall/mess hall. There are no associated buildings on this property.
(Chronological, descriptive history of the property from its construction through at least the historic period - preferably to the present)
The following information is compiled from “History of the Cottage Grove National Guard Unit and Armory” by Waffen Aney, Oregon Army National Guard Historian, 2004. A. THE OREGON MILITIA AND OREGON NATIONAL GUARD IN COTTAGE GROVE Oregon adopted a new militia law establishing a state and federally supported Oregon National Guard in 1885. The Third Regiment of the Oregon National Guard mustered in and served in The Philippines during the war with Spain and the early months of the Philippine Insurrection in 1898. Cottage Grove did not contribute a unit to this effort. Cottage Grove organized its first National Guard unit in April of 1907, Separate Company E under the command of CPT James C. Johnson. Company E became part of the Fourth Infantry Regiment, Oregon National Guard in July of that same year. The Fourth Infantry Regiment disbanded in 1910 to become the Oregon Coast Artillery. The Cottage Grove unit became the 6th Company, Coast Artillery Corps, Oregon National Guard. Cottage Grove also became headquarters for the 3rd Battalion of Oregon’s Coast Artillery in August 1916. The battalion commander was MAJ Harry K. Metcalf, former battery commander and a veteran who had served with the Oregon volunteers in the Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection. War was raging in Europe by 1917. President Wilson called the 6th Company and 3rd Battalion into federal service in August 1917. Oregon’s coast artillery did not maintain its integrity — its units were made part of other artillery units, particularly the 65th and 69th Heavy Artillery Regiments. These regiments served during campaigns in France and Belgium. A variety of home guard type units sprang up in Oregon during World War I, with almost every county taking part by organizing a County Defense Force unit. The 41st Division, organized during World War I as a training and replacement division, became the post-war National Guard division encompassing Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana. Company D of the 186th Infantry Regiment was organized and federally recognized in Cottage Grove in January 1922. The Cottage Grove unit went back to being a coast artillery battery and recovered its original unit letter designation in April of 1926 by becoming Battery E of the 249th Coast Artillery, Oregon National Guard. The unit came under the command of CPT LaSells D. Stewart in August of 1930, a World War I overseas veteran, innovative engineer, lumberman, and community leader. During this period, the unit conducted field training at Fort Stevens and Fort Canby on the mouth of the Columbia River while quartering at Camp Clatsop (now Camp Rilea). War had broken out in Europe and Asia and it looked as if the United States could get involved by 1940. President Roosevelt ordered into federal service in August 1940 for one year 4 National Guard divisions, 18 National Guard coast artillery regiments, and 4 National Guard observation squadrons. Oregon’s 249th Coast Artillery, including Cottage Grove’s Battery E, was among those ordered into federal service, effective September16. The regiment took up quarters at Camp Clatsop and began training at nearby Fort Stevens. Battery commander CPT La Sells Stewart was promoted to major in battalion headquarters. His son, CPT Faye Stewart, took over command of the battery. The U.S. Congress extended this period of service in September 1941 and on December 7, 1941 the U.S. entered World War II. The 249th Coast Artillery Regiment remained on the Pacific Coast throughout the war serving a harbor defense role. The unit was inactivated in September 1945, a month after World War II was over. The Oregon State Guard replaced the federalized National Guard during World War II. The Sixteenth Battalion was headquartered in Cottage Grove under the command of LTC LaSells Stewart. Company A and B of the Sixteenth Battalion also formed in Cottage Grove. Oregon started reorganizing its National Guard soon after the end of World War II Cannon Company of the 186th Infantry Regiment, 41st Infantry Division, Oregon Army National Guard, organized in Cottage Grove in August 1947. This unit was reorganized and redesignated in 1952 as Company B of the 186th Infantry Regiment. There was a general reorganization of Oregon Army National Guard units to the Army’s new “Pentomic” concept in 1959. The Cottage Grove unit was reorganized and redesignated as Company B, 2nd Battle Group, 186th Infantry, 41st Infantry Division, Oregon Army National Guard. A truck loaded with dynamite and fertilizer exploded in downtown Roseburg in August of 1959, killing 13 and devastating 8 full blocks. The Roseburg National Guard unit responded within 90 minutes and the Cottage Grove unit was in Roseburg within 12 hours . The 41st Infantry Division reorganized again in 1963 under the Army’s new ROAD (ReOrganized Army Division) concept. The Cottage Grove unit became Detachment 1 of Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 162nd Infantry, 41st Infantry Division, Oregon Army National Guard. The 41st Infantry Brigade was formed from elements of the 41st Infantry Division in both Oregon and Washington two years later, in November 1965. This brigade received intensified and advanced training as part of the U. S. Army’s Select Reserve Force (SRF). The Cottage Grove unit became Company A of the 2nd Battalion, 162nd Infantry (SRI), 41st Infantry Brigade, Oregon Army National Guard. Training progressed to the battalion and brigade level and the brigade was the principal player in a 1967 combined forces exercise at Yakima Firing Center, Washington. The 41st Infantry Division disbanded, with colors retained by the new all-Oregon 41st Infantry Brigade in 1968. The Cottage Grove unit became Detachment 1 of Company C, 1st Battalion, 186th Infantry, 41st Infantry Brigade, Oregon Army National Guard. Defense of Alaska became part of the mission of the 41st Infantry Brigade and Company C trained in Alaska in 1973 and 1976. In other years, the unit performed annual field training at Yakima Firing Center, Camp Rilea or Fort Lewis. The brigade was designated as a “Round Out” unit for the U.S. Army’s 7th Infantry Division In 1975 stationed at Fort Ord, California. For annual training, the brigade traveled to Camp Roberts and Fort Hunter-Liggett in central California to train with parts of the 7th Infantry Division. The Cottage Grove unit reorganized in 1979 to become Headquarters and Headquarters Company of the 2nd Battalion, 162nd Infantry, the designation it retains to the present. The 41st Brigade left the command and control of the 7th Infantry Division in 1985 and was designated as a Separate Infantry Brigade (SIB) with the capability to be a self-contained effective combat element. The unit did annual field training in amphibious operations in 1986 and 1990 at Coronado, California. A battalion task force went to Korea in March 1988 to participate in Team Spirit Exercise. A detachment of the company was organized in Eugene in September 1992, The Cottage Grove unit retained the battalion headquarters and staff sections, a communications platoon, a medical platoon, and a staff section platoon. The 41st Separate Infantry Brigade was named as one of 15 <‘Enhanced” brigades in 1994 to be equipped and modernized at the same level as its active army counterparts. In that year the battalion’s annual field training was at the Jungle Operations Training Center in Panama. The 41st Separate Infantry Brigade (Enhanced) returned to an association with the 7th Infantry Division in 1998, now located at Fort Carson, Colorado. The 41st Brigade became one of the division’s three combat power brigades. Soldiers from the 2nd Battalion, including members from Cottage Grove, deployed to Japan in 1996 to participate in the U.S.-Japan cold weather training exercise Northwind 96. The battalion provided a company size unit for Operation Southern Watch in Kuwait in 1999. Company C in Eugene was given the task but soldiers from throughout the battalion area, including Cottage Grove, volunteered to assist in this 6-month deployment. The unit returned home in July 2000. Members of the Cottage Grove unit supported and participated in forest fire fighting efforts in Oregon in 2000 and 2001. The unit responded to orders mobilizing the 2nd Battalion, 162nd Infantry for duty supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom in September 2003. The unit departed for Ft. Hood, Texas in October, where they underwent intensified training preparatory for deployment to Iraq as part of the 39th Separate Infantry Brigade, Arkansas Army National Guard. B. ARMORY HISTORY Before and after World War I the Cottage Grove unit occupied an armory located on Main Street and River Road (Figure 2). This building still stands and currently houses an antique store. The current Cottage Grove Armory was completed in 1931. Armory dedication festivities on April 11, 1931 included two parades, beginning with an afternoon march from the old armory on the corner of Main and River, followed by a formal military procession through town in the evening. Over 2,000 spilled out of the drill hail during the dedication ceremony and dance. The Cottage Grove Armory was designed by the Eugene firm of Hunzicker, Smith and Phillips, and constructed by Stevens, Niblock and Leabo in 1930-193 1. The armory was built for $60,000 and employed primarily local laborers, including the suppliers of lumber, millwork, plumbing and heating, plaster, gravel, and cement (Voss 1993:7). A January 1931 article recounted that the armory construction required 4,800 sacks of cement, 230,000 feet of lumber, 14,500 feet of maple flooring, and employed 21 men (Cottage Grove Sentinel 1931 a). During the 1 930s the drill hail was used for ballroom dancing and roller-skating.
Title Records Census Records Property Tax Records Local Histories
Sanborn Maps Biographical Sources SHPO Files Interviews
Obituaries Newspapers State Archives Historic Photographs
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Historical Society: Other Respository:
Bibliography:
Aney, Warren W. 2004 History of the Cottage Grove National Guard Unit and Armory. Prepared for the Oregon Military Department, Salem, Oregon. Aney, Warren W. n.d, (Manuscript in preparation). A Militar3 History of the Oregon Country. Anonymous. 1938 HistoricalAnnual, National Guard of the State of Oregon, 1939. Army and Navy Publishing Co, Baton Rouge, LA. / Anonymous n.d. ORARNG Unit Histories Excel Spreadsheets. Two 3.25 inch computer disks. On file at the Oregon Military Department, Salem, Oregon. Archaeological Investigations Northwest, Inc. 2001 Integrated Cultural Resource Management Plan for the Oregon Army National Guard (Draft copy). Archaeological Investigations Northwest, Inc., Portland, Oregon. Coming, Howard McK. 1989 Dictionary of Oregon History (2d edition). Binford & Mort Publishing, Portland, OR. Cottage Grove Sentinel 1931 a $60,000 Aimory to be Ready For Occupancy by March. January23. 193 lb Cottage Grove’s New Armory Building is to be Dedicated with Elaborate Exercises Saturday. April 10. Hoskinson, SSG Ole and SFC Ed Spear. 1993 Volunteers, 2-162 Infantry. Headquarters, 2-162 Infantry, Cottage Grove, OR. Knuth, Priscilla. 1967 “Picturesque” Frontier: the Army’s Fort Dalles. Oregon Historical Society, Portland. LaVios, George A. 1992 Re: Downtown historic resources survey (letter dtd 16 October 1992). Office of Planning and Development, City of Cottage Grove, OR. McArthur, Lewis A. 1992 Oregon Geographic Names (6th edition). Oregon Historical Society Press, Portland, Oregon. Norris, COL David A. 2001 The Oregon State Defense Force in peace and war. Oregon State Defense Force, Clackamas, OR. Oregon Adjutant General 1863- 1864 Biennial Report of the Adjutant General. State of Oregon, Salem, 1861- 1872 Biennial Report of the Adjutant General. State of Oregon, Salem. 1889- 1940 Biennial Report of the Adjutant General. State of Oregon, Salem. The Oregon Guardsman 1928 History of the Oregon National Guard.’August 15:3. Oregon Military Department (OMD) 1909 General Staff Minutes. Manuscript on file at the Oregon State Archives, Salem, Oregon. Spears, Ed 2003 Personal, telephone, and e-mail communications with Warren W. Aney, Military Historian, Oregon Army National Guard. Victor, Francis Fuller 1894 The Early Indian Wars of Oregon. State Printer, Salem, Ore. Voss, David K. 1993 National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, Downtown Cottage Grove Commercial Historic District. Wiley, Mike 2003 Personal, telephone, and e-mail communications with Warren W. Aney, Military Historian, Oregon Army National Guard. Zucker, Jeff, Kay Hummel, and Bob Høgfoss 1983 Oregon Indians; Culture, History and Current Affairs. Western Imprints, Oregon Historical Society, Portland.